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Rococo And Neoclassicism Essays On Love

Rococo And Neoclassical Style Essay

The Rococo art style in the 18th was a decorative style of art that originated in the hotels and salons of Paris. S and C curves, shells, wings, scrolls, plant tendril forms, and cartouches meaning elaborate frame, all distinguished Rococo. However, the Neoclassicism art style in the late 18th century portrayed the middle class society and unlike the composition of Rococo painted ceilings, its composition is simpler with limited figures. The Rococo and Neoclassical styles of art were both influenced by European life, reflected Europe’s culture, and had different political and social themes.
The Industrial Revolution that took place in the 1800’s was a radical change that began in England and soon enough had spread through Europe and America. As a result, social, political, and economical transformations took place and art shifted in style and subject themes flourished. The Philosophes, which were philosophers who dominated the French Enlightment and visited salons, contributed to the development of art criticism. The Rococo artistic style reflects the merriness that the wealthy people decorated their homes with, while the Neoclassical art style focused more on the middle class people and was distinguished by Western art and culture of Ancient Greece or Rome. The culture helped shape the Neoclassicism art style that represented the growth of a civilized society. The Rococo art style in the 18th century depicted domestic life in the upper class, elegantly well dress aristocrats, and mythological themes. Neoclassicism on the other hand saw the rise of Greek and Roman classical themes as more of their culture was revealed. The Neoclassicism art style was also incorporated in paintings that had to do with the Revolution for instance, the painting The Lictors Returning to Brutus the Bodies of His Son.
The Rococo art style was portrayed in Jean Antoine Watteau artworks. Watteau was born on October 10, 1684 and died on July 18, 1721. Some of Watteau subjects for art were landscapes, scenery, and figures. Watteau was best known for his paintings of fetes gallants’, which was an amorous celebration or party in a garden setting As an admirer of Ruben’s art, Watteau style of art was reflected in the sensuality of Rubens brushwork and color the sensuality of his subject themes In The Signboard of Gersaint, which was painted around 1721. A characteristic embedded in in Watteau artwork is light, which...

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Neo-Classical Architecture Essay

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Architecture Set In Motion

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Neoclassical and Romantic Painting

Introduction

Table Summary

Neoclassical/Romantic period
ca. 1750-1900
NeoclassicalDavid
RomanticfigureGéricault, Delacroix
landscapeBarbizon school, Turner, Constable

General Features

The ages of Neoclassicism and Romanticism both span approximately the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.1,2 (Within this period, Neoclassical artistic activity peaked first, then Romantic.) Both movements flourished across Western Europe (especially in the north) and the United States, and to a lesser extent in Eastern Europe.

Following the extravagance of Baroque and Rococo, a general longing for the restraint of classicism emerged, fuelling the rise of the Neoclassical movement. Another factor was the excavation of several major classical sites (including Pompeii and Athens), which expanded knowledge of ancient art and provided an enormous burst of inspiration.3,15 (The "Pompeian styles" of wall painting, for instance, were adopted for Neoclassical interior decoration.H913) The heart of Neoclassical painting was France, where the legacy of Poussin continued to resonate.19

Meanwhile, many artists of this period sought to break new ground in the expression of emotion, both subtle and stormy (see Western Aesthetics). This was the Romantic movement, which embraced a number of distinctive themes, including historical nostalgia, supernatural elements, social injustices, and nature. Indeed, the Romantic adoration of nature caused landscape painting to flourish like never before. (Landscape painting can be defined as "painting in which the environment is the primary subject; figures are absent or secondary".)

Painterly vs. Linear Style

Neoclassical painting usually features a linear style (in which the outlines of objects are sharply defined, thanks to carefully controlled brushstrokes), whereas Romantic painters tended to favour a painterly style (in which freedom of colour takes precedence over sharply-defined forms; brushstrokes are less restrained, resulting in somewhat "messy" outlines). The painterly style often has visible brushstrokes, while the linear style features smooth areas of colour, in which no brushstrokes can be seen.

Modern Developments

The world of painting was revolutionized by industrialization. The mixing of paint, a laborious procedure when performed by hand (such that it was often delegated to apprentices), was increasingly automated. New colours became available as artificial pigments were developed, and the packaging of paint in metal tubes finally made it convenient for artists to leave the studio and paint on site. (Up until the invention of the paint tube, artists usually only prepared sketches on site, returning to the studio for the actual painting.)E78,16

The Neoclassical/Romantic age also witnessed the founding of public museums throughout the West. For the first time in history, large collections of artistic (and historical) objects were made available for everyone to see. The very first public museum was the Louvre, which opened under the reign of Napoleon.C100

Neoclassical Painting

ca. 1750-1900

Neoclassicism appealed to artists supportive of the French Revolution, given the democratic legacy of ancient Greece and Rome. Such artists included Jacques-Louis David, foremost of all Neoclassical painters. David’s first great work was Oath of the Horatii, which depicts three legendary warriors pledging allegiance to the Roman Republic. Later primary works include the portrayal of a revolutionary martyr in The Death of Marat (his masterpiece) and Napoleon Crossing the Alps, one of many works David produced as the emperor’s official painter.2,6,16

Main Article

Romantic Painting

ca. 1750-1900

Romantic painting can be divided into two main types: figure painting (in which figures are the primary subject) and landscape painting (in which the environment is the primary subject). The former type was led by France, the latter by England. Each nation produced two outstanding Romantic masters.

The first French master was Théodore Géricault, whose masterpiece The Raft of the Medusa portrays the victims of a contemporary shipwreck. The people on this raft were French emigrants en route to West Africa, whose ship foundered at sea. The lifeboats were seized by the crew, while the colonists (who numbered over a hundred) were abandoned on a makeshift raft with little water or food; only fifteen survived the wait for a rescue ship.E76

Eugène Delacroix, considered the greatest French Romantic painter, achieved brilliant visual effects using small, adjacent strokes of contrasting colour. (While a number of Romantic painters used this technique, which was eventually adopted and extended by the impressionists, Delacroix was the most influential.) His masterpiece, Liberty Leading the People, depicts the French Revolution in all its heroic glory and grisly destruction.E78,4,7

Romantic landscape painting in France was led by the Barbizon school, a circle of artists who held meetings in the village of Barbizon.9 The two most famous members of this school may be Théodore Rousseau and Camille Corot.

Joseph Mallord William Turner, whose works typically feature a dense, dreamy atmosphere, is often considered England's greatest painter. As his career progressed, Turner increasingly sacrificed physical realism for rich textures of mist and light, thus foreshadowing the rise of modern art.17

The other leading English Romantic artist was John Constable, the foremost painter of idyllic rural England, who focused especially on his native countryside of Suffolk (on England's east coast).19 The bright, clear atmosphere and straightforward realism of Constable's work contrasts sharply with the dense atmosphere and distortion of Turner. The Hay-wain is often considered Constable's masterpiece.

1 - "Romanticism", Columbia Encyclopedia. Accessed May 2009.
2 - "Classicism", Columbia Encyclopedia. Accessed May 2009.
3 - "Neoclassical Art and Architecture", Encarta. Accessed May 2009.
4 - "Romanticism", Encyclopedia Britannica. Accessed May 2009.
5 - "Painting: Neoclassical Painting", Encarta. Accessed May 2009.
6 - "David, Jacques-Louis", Columbia Encyclopedia. Accessed May 2009.
7 - "Eugène Delacroix", Encarta. Accessed May 2009.
8 - "Painting: Romantic Painting", Encarta. Accessed May 2009.
10 - "Barbizon School", Columbia Encyclopedia. Accessed May 2009.
11 - "Joseph Mallord William Turner", Encarta. Accessed May 2009.
12 - "John Constable (British artist)", Encyclopedia Britannica. Accessed May 2009.
13 - "John Constable", Encarta. Accessed May 2009.
14 - "Plein-air painting", Encyclopedia Britannica. Accessed May 2009.
15 - "Western Architecture: Classicism, 1750-1830", Encyclopedia Britannica. Accessed June 2009.
16 - "Western Painting", Encyclopedia Britannica. Accessed July 2009.
17 - "Turner, Joseph Mallord William", Columbia Encyclopedia. Accessed July 2009.
18 - "Caspar David Friedrich", Encyclopedia Britannica. Accessed July 2009.
19 - "Painting", World Book Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2009.

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